Teachers who emphasize authentic intellectual work transform student learning. This manual is designed to encourage teacher reflection that carefully considers the kinds of intellectual challenges and expectations they promote in lessons, assignments and assessments, and the corresponding student work. The standards and scoring criteria in this manual are based on years of research and work with teachers in schools. They are intended to help teachers to collaboratively discuss provide feedback and improve their practice in ways that will build their common understanding and enhance student learning.
Dr. Fred M. Newmann Emeritus Professor of Curriculum and Instruction University of Wisconsin-Madison directed the National Center on Organization and Restructuring Schools which generated the research base for this report. Prior to his research on general school reform Newmann contributed to research and curriculum development in social studies and civic education. He retired from the University of Wisconsin in 2001.